What is dyslexia? – Kelli Sandman-Hurley

Take a moment to read the following. How was that? Frustrating? Slow? What were those sentences about? They’re actually a simulation of the experience of dyslexia, designed to make you decode each word. Those with dyslexia experience
that laborious pace every time they read. When most people think of dyslexia, they think of seeing letters
and words backwards, like seeing “b” as “d” and vice versa, or they might think people with dyslexia see “saw” as “was”. The truth is people with dyslexia see things the same way as everyone else. Dyslexia is caused by a phonological
processing problem, meaning people affected by it have trouble not with seeing language but with manipulating it. For example, if you heard the word cat and then someone asked
you, “Remove the ‘c’,” what word would you have left? At. This can be difficult
for those with dyslexia. Given a word in isolation, like fantastic, students with dyslexia
need to break the word into parts to read it: fan, tas, tic. Time spent decoding makes it hard to keep up with peers and gain sufficient comprehension. Spelling words phonetically, like s-t-i-k for stick and f-r-e-n-s for friends is also common. These difficulties are more
widespread and varied than commonly imagined. Dyslexia affects up to one in five people. It occurs on a continuum. One person might have mild dyslexia while the next person has
a profound case of it. Dyslexia also runs in families. It’s common to see one family member who has trouble spelling while another family member has severe difficulty decoding
even one syllable words, like catch. The continuum and distribution of dyslexia suggests a broader
principle to bear in mind as we look at how the brains
of those with dyslexia process language. Neurodiversity is the idea that because all our brains
show differences in structure and function, we shouldn’t be so quick to label every deviation from “the norm” as a pathological disorder or dismiss people living
with these variations as “defective.” People with neurobiological
variations like dyslexia, including such creative
and inventive individuals as Picasso, Muhammad Ali, Whoopi Goldberg, Steven Spielberg, and Cher, clearly have every capacity to be brilliant and successful in life. So, here’s the special way the brains of those with dyslexia work. The brain is divided into two hemispheres. The left hemisphere is generally
in charge of language and, ultimately, reading, while the right typically
handles spatial activities. fMRI studies have found that the brains of those with dyslexia rely more on the right
hemisphere and frontal lobe than the brains of those without it. This means, when they read a word, it takes a longer trip through their brain and can get delayed in the frontal lobe. Because of this neurobiological glitch, they read with more difficulty. But those with dyslexia can physically change their brain and improve their reading with an intensive,
multi-sensory intervention that breaks the language down and teaches the reader to decode based on syllable types
and spelling rules. The brains of those with dyslexia begin using the left hemisphere more efficiently while reading, and their reading improves. The intervention works because it locates dyslexia appropriately as a functional variation in the brain, which, naturally, shows
all sorts of variations from one person to another. Neurodiversity emphasizes this spectrum of brain function in all humans and suggests that to better
understand the perspectives of those around us, we should try not only to see
the world through their eyes but understand it through their brains.

100 thoughts on “What is dyslexia? – Kelli Sandman-Hurley

  1. isnt it more important what the brain circuit does than where its located? like if I take my laptop put it into the left half of a cupboard, run a Word on it and then move the laptop to the right half of the cupboard, it will suddenly be running Adobe Premiere?

  2. my dad has dyslexia and he dident learn to read untill he was in 4 grade untill hes teacher helped him.ive tried 8 times to fix dident and I still cant find the right words.I think I have dyslexia.

  3. Imagine teaching yourself all the little rules in the English language, having to work on every single word to pronounce it and when spelling you have to sound out the hard bits even going as far as to pronounce words differently, that is what having dyslexia was like for me

    Like if you have dyslexia too

  4. I used to have EXTREME dyslexia and I mean extremely bad. It took me around 7 years of of first training and then a boarding school to get over it. My teachers even thought I’d never be able to read. As much as I’d like to say “But now I’m above average!” I’m not. I only have very mild dyslexia( or none) but I am still and always will be a little not a lot, behind my classmates.

  5. It makes me feel slow 🙁 i hate it !! Except i don’t have a heard time while reading I have a hard time transferring what a person is saying.

  6. I got diagnosed with ADD and dyslexia at age 16 but I originally just went for an ADD consultation. The neuro-psychologists asked me if I ever noticed the dyslexia. I never did, so they said I must've taught myself some sub-conscious techniques because my dyslexia wasn't as severe as some of my classmates' and also because I never really noticed it. My ADD is way more noticeable tho, I start things, don't finish them and then start to do other things. I wonder if there is a connection between ADD/ADHD and dyslexia

  7. An Inglısh orþografy rıform wuld meık lıvıng wıþ daıslexıa mac ızıer and also meık lernıng tu wraıt ızıer as sun as evrıwan gets yusd tu ıt. Aı stıl doun't anderstand hwy Inglısh spelıng has remeınd olmoust kemplîtly unceıngd for 600 yirz.

  8. I have dyslexia and it’s actually more of a blessing than a curse I’ve been able to learn new and different things that other people don’t learn and it’s helped me grow and succeed higher than some of my Non dyslexic peers

  9. After seeing videos like this, you just realize that you are lucky to be one of those 4 people in the 5.

  10. I have dislexia and when I was younger my teachers thought that I wasn't study at all and they tell to my parent's that I hadn't dislexia I was just too lazy

  11. I saw this video thinking I was going to be able to relate to it but now I realize I don't actually have dyslexia! I had a bad experience with an English teacher so my confidence with reading and writing wasn't great and people just assumed I was dyslexic

  12. It's something that people who are too lazy to learn to read properly claim they have so they have an excuse

  13. Вопрос есть. Если мне просто трудно читать и я очень медленно читаю, особенно вслух, с самого детства, да ещё и с ошибками, это дислексия? Подобное случается, когда я читаю вслух, когда же про себя – никогда,всегда правильно, но стоит начать делать это вслух, так заедаю как ржавый трактор моего деда. Я это утрирую конечно. Ситуация не настолько плачевна. На самом деле так получается через каждое примерно 6-8 слово… Так это дислексия? Может мне кто-то ответить?
    А ещё при разговоре и когда даже мыслю почти каждый день аж несколько раз, максимум 5-6, при произношении некоторых словосочетаний первые или последний буквы слов меняются. Это чаще случается, когда говорю про себя, но и в устной речи не редкость, из-за чего с детства становилась посмешищем как в классе, так и в кругу друзей или родственников. К примеру, вместо ,,заработала букеТ болезНей'' – ,,заработала букеН боленТей'' или вместо ,,нашла деньги'' – ,,дашла неньги''….Это что такое, может кто объяснить?
    Всегда считала себя отсталой…Хотя в школе всегда были успехи, попадала в десятку лучших по итогам олимпиад по всей республике…Хотя тут могу добавить, что я ещё и творческий человек. Может в этом причина?

  14. I always suspected I had dyslexia, but this would explain it a lot. I do often have trouble reading. Most of the time it’s because I missed a letter or word and the sentence doesn’t make sense. Sometimes I have to read it over a few times before I can process what it means.
    I’ve also always been terrible at spelling. And sometimes when a word is spelled right, it can look wrong and I second guess myself.
    I’m also a very creative person, wanting to write fiction (irony, I know) and illustrate children’s books. I’ve already made some fan fiction and I love to draw and make stuff. This would also be an explanation after seeing this.
    But I’m definitely a more mild case. I’m not quite as bad as the first paragraph. For me only some words in those sentences are jumbled. Much worse when I’m tired, harder to focus

  15. I don’t really know but when I was really young I would replace b with d and d with b and if I read it it would seem pretty normal and right, (is that a symptom?) and spell these as theese as if they were spelled like cheese.

    Edit: probably just muscle memory from writing too much similar words right?

  16. I see random words sometimes. I passed my sight across a bunch of candies in Walmart and I read and saw "Lucifer" somewhere

  17. I found out late that I have dyslexia, I remember When I was in 1St grade my teacher would always yell at me and tell me that i cant go home unless I spelled my name correctly, It was really frustrating as a 7 year old to spell your own name repeatedly, especially when I don't know the difference between d and b and p, w and m , but nobody told Me I was dyslexic, and my teacher never told me the difference between those letter, so I copied the names of my classmates during my 1St grade. And in summer I asked my sister to write my name and then I tried to copy it until 6the grade then I realized the difference between those letters

  18. Oh that's dislexia? I'm probably dislexic… Lol

    Edit: won't be surprised it runs in the family.

  19. Dyslexia

    Neurological condition, developmental or acquired

    Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads.Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have a normal desire to learn.

  20. I have trouble spelling so I been bullied because I have this oh my fracking frick those kids are dum-bassies see what I did there

  21. I think this is so important for people to understand dyslexia in general and as a spectrum and not to just think of the “stereotypical” signs because I went through primary and secondary school without knowing I had it or any of my teachers even suggesting it. one of my English teachers thought I just had exam anxiety/stress when struggling with the essays and questions needed for GCSEs. Thank god for one of my college tutors (who was also dyslexic) spotting it and telling me to get screened and later tested!

  22. After Watching this video and a wee class about it I do believe I have a small case of dyslexia mostly for writing (barely any mistakes in this comment thanks autocorrect)

  23. Dyslexia is when you think in 3D, but your mind does not benchmark or anchor your position in X, Y, or Z coordinates. So you REMEMBER the letters you see floating all over your mental sky. That is why you may remember the second letter in a word, but forget the first.

  24. One thing I just found out recently is that people without dyslexia don’t primarily think in pictures or colours and let me tell you, That was a revelation to me

  25. I was diagnosed with dyslexia when I was 10 because they couldn’t tell what I had. It turns out I just have a mild processing issue : /

  26. I has it that why I change word which I can't spell to any word for example if I can't spell take I was spell took

  27. My brain fixed the opening sentence without even realising that it was jumbled because I'm so used to it wow…
    People wine about me getting extra time because dexlexia "isn't that serious" and I'm like I was 5 before I could read but now I am a huge reader.

  28. I have dyslexia and it is hard for me to read and write/spell words as well as the other kids ITS TOUGH OKKKK

  29. This is odd though… because i have dislexy.. disye… dyslexia nice no auto correct, and i am learning korean and japanese and they are pretty easy languages for me the logic is hard but isnt it for every english language native. Anyways just interesting how my dyslexia doesnt show in these other languages, just a penny thought

  30. My english once joked and asked me do I have dyslexia cause we were reading a text and I accidentally read World War II instead of World War I. I guess I was just used to talking about the WW2 more than WW1

  31. Does this means dyslexia only affects people living in culture where the language is not spelled phonetically? Like, would Thai speakers or Italian speakers be affected by this since almost all the words are spelled phonetically. And what about Chinese where words are not spelling but rather symbols?

  32. They show Einstein on here, but, he didn't have Dyslexia, he actually had Asperger's Syndrome. Those are Two very different disorders.

  33. Tech support! What's your problem?

    The screen shows 0:18
    I think I changed the keyboard layout

  34. I have dyslexia and i make many terrible mistakes when i write essays in polish. When teacher markes them the page is full of red but when i write essays for my english lessons i make amost no mistakes. Fortunetly dyslexia does not affect foreign languages.

  35. I have dyslexia and dyscalculia after 3yrs of special education i have finally over come it but maths is still really hard for me.

  36. I mean dyslexia sounds like a cool name to name your kid but it's annoying and what if the poor kid had dyslexia (that would be ironic-Dyslexia the dyslexic)

  37. I think I have hyperlexia. I think the best example of this is that it’s relatively easy for me to learn and recognize chinese characters. I know I’ve been good at reading and grammar and language. However, I think this effects my ability to communicate orally. I don’t know why, it’s just neurodiversity. One of my friends growing up who had dyslexia never had a problem saying exactly what was on her mind and was really good at communicating in that way

  38. In the Caribbean…each year …the 5th form students do an examination called CXC..it wasn't until I was doing CXC a couple months ago..that I realised i have to be reading over simple instructions about 3 times before I could actually see and understand what is being said. I'm glad I'm not the only one going through it though

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